Pemrosesan Bahasa Alami – 2 Definition Natural Language Processing (NLP) is an application (program) in the field of AI that can interpret a language, written and spoken language, or process input in the form of language into information or knowledge. That is not what is being discussed. How language is incorporated into the input or program, but more about how to interpret a language or how to copy/retrieve information/knowledge from a language.
3 NLP is the process of building a computational model of language, thereby allowing communication between humans and computers through the natural language used by humans. NLP models knowledge of language in terms of words, how words are combined to form sentences, and the context of words in sentences.
Pemrosesan Bahasa Alami
Main parts, namely: processing of written manuscripts using knowledge of lexical, syntactic and semantics, processing of spoken languages, using all knowledge to process written manuscripts and knowledge of phonology.
Doc) Bahasa Alami 1
5 Problems in NLP Some of the problems encountered in natural language processing include: A sentence is often incomplete, meaning it does not convey clear or complete information, A sentence can have more than one meaning in different contexts No natural language processing program. Language is always evolving and vocabulary is always increasing because it is complete. 4. There can be more than one way (more than one sentence) to express the same thing (meaning).
6 Process Steps Natural language processing requires the following 5 steps: Morphology Analysis This step involves an analysis of each word, including non-word tokens such as spaces, punctuation, and separators. Syntax Analysis At this stage a sequence of words is organized into a structure that shows how one word relates to another. A string of words is rejected if it does not follow the existing vocabulary rules
7 Semantic analysis gives meaning to the word structure formed at this stage. In other words, a mapping is made between the sentence structure and the associated object. Discourse knowledge at this stage organizes the meaning of a sentence with other sentences, because the meaning of a sentence is usually related to the sentence before it and the sentence after it. The structure forming pragmatic analysis results in the reinterpretation of what was previously said or written with its original meaning.
8 Morphology Knowledge of words and their forms so that they can be distinguished from each other. Example: wake wake (root word) mem (prefix) can (suffix)
Pengenalan Pola (pattern Recognition) Pada Teknik Informatika (computer Science)
10 Semantics studies the meaning of a word and how these word meanings form the meaning of a word from a complete sentence. Example: – My father came to bring presents – I want to know. (Know = understand)- I want to know. (tofu = food)
Identifying whether a recognized sentence affects the next sentence. Important for identifying personal pronouns, adverbs of place or temporal aspects of information. Example: Mother went to the market. He buys food there.
12 Knowledge of the context of words/sentences closely related to the situations or circumstances in which the words/sentences are used. Example: Daddy is coming (pronounced with a double tone) Daddy is coming! (spoken in a high voice) Is daddy coming? (pronounced at a fast tempo)
13 World knowledge includes the meaning of a word in general and the specific meaning of a word in a conversation in a particular context.
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14 Phonetics / Phonology deals with the sound by which a word can be recognized. This field is used in speech-based system applications, for example in English there is a real difference between the sounds tin and thin and they and today and yet.
15 Grammar and Parsers A grammar is a set of rules that determine how a sentence in a language is formed. Grammar consists of a set of standard/correct syntax of a language. Example: In Indonesian, a sentence usually consists of subject-predicate-object-narrative, a method or a program (often called a machine) that can construct/generate sentences or languages according to a predetermined or required grammar. Parsers can also check whether a given sentence conforms to the grammar or not.
The parsing process starts from the start symbol and uses grammar rules until the terminal symbols in the tree are connected to the elements of the sentence being parsed. Build words into terminals and terminals into sentences until the tree is complete and the start symbol is reached.
Applications that process written text Example: Searching for a specific topic from a book in the library Searching for the contents of a news or article Searching for the contents of translating documents from one language to another
Use Case Atau Kasus Penggunaan Natural Language Processing
Applications that perform processing from spoken language or speech recognition. Example: Automatic telephone service system Voice control of electronic devices to improve language skills
20 examples of NLP ELIZA applications equipped with psychological knowledge, encouraging some people to change their attitudes and behavior. Jupiter can provide weather information over the phone. Alvin who can answer questions about dosage. Sexpert is designed for discussions about sexuality education. Translator Web Translator World Translator
22 Translators A tool that answers the problem of language differences, because translators can translate languages as we need them. If what we receive does not correspond to our everyday language, the translator will translate the sentences in the mailbox.
23 Web Translator A World Wide Web-based application engine that can translate languages on a Web site. Web Translator will translate the language of all the links, page by page, into the language we need.
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24 World Translator A development from an existing word translator. It is hoped that the results of language translation will be better with this technology, following the rules of grammar. Translation will be faster and more accurate, no longer by using a word-by-word translation system, but by looking at the subject-predicate-object for each sentence. It is hoped that this development will be able to answer the challenges of word translators already in the market.
25 Grammar A rule that determines whether a set of words is acceptable as a sentence in a language. A Context Free Grammar (CFG) is a grammatical representation of the Chomsky hierarchy that is easy to understand and process in programmatic form. CFG represents that a grammar can be formed from 4 elements, namely: initial symbols writing rules non-terminal symbols terminal symbols
26 Examples of Initial Signs Non-Terminal Signs Writing Rules Phrase Verb Noun Verb Terminal Sign
27 Parsing The process of analyzing a set of words, separating the words and determining the syntactic structure of each of these words. There are 2 approaches to this: top-down parsing and bottom-up parsing
Ikon Konsep Pemrosesan Bahasa Alami Dengan Teks Ilustrasi Stok
V verb study, debate, munch ADJ adj purple, tall, ridiculous ADV adverb unfortunately, slowly, P preposition, by, PRO pronoun I, me, mine DET determining, a, that, those
Phrase -> Noun_Vocabulary, Verb_Vocabulary Noun_Vocabulary -> Determiner, Noun Verb_Vocabulary -> Verb, Noun_Vocabulary Proper_Noun -> [Mary] Noun -> [Apple] Verb -> [Pro] Determiner -> [The] NLP. Carolina Ruiz
3 Natural Language Problems Language processing problems are broadly divided into 2, namely: 1. Processing of written text 2. Processing of spoken language
Pemrosesan Bahasa Alami Berbasis Teks (nlp Berbasis Teks)
According to rich natural language processing, it can be divided into several processes: 1. Morphological analysis 2. Syntactic analysis 3. Semantic analysis 4. Discourse integration 5. Pragmatic analysis
10 Functional analysis reinterprets the structure that represents what is said to mean what it actually means
13 Semantic Analysis Semantic Analysis produces a target language representation of a sentence There are two types of target language namely: 1. As support for language processing 2. As legal input to other programs
14 Lexical processing is the first step in semantic processing.
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Several approaches to the symbolic representation of a sentence: 1. Semantic Grammar 2. Case Grammar 3. Conceptual Parsing 4. Compositional Semantic Interception
16 Semantic Grammar Semantic grammar is a context-free grammar in which semantics governs the choice of production and non-terminal rules as well as syntactic operations.
17 Case grammar Case grammar provides an approach to combining syntactic and semantic interpretation Grammatical rules are written to describe syntactic rules rather than semantics
18 Conceptual Parsing Conceptual parsing is a strategy for discovering the structure and meaning of a sentence at one point.
Solution: Materi Pemrosesan Bahasa Alami
Each step in the process of syntactic analysis has steps associated with semantic interpretation, and the approach is Montague semantics.
As Rich and Knight (2006) succinctly state, natural language processing identifies several levels of processing, namely: phonetics and phonology, which relate to the sounds that produce recognizable words. സംഭാഷണത്തെ അടിസ്ഥാനമാക്കിയുള്ള സിസ്റ്റം രീതിയെ വ്യാഖ്യാനിക്കുന്ന ആപ്ലിക്കേഷൻ പ്രക്രിയയിൽ ഈ ഫീൽഡ് പ്രധാനമാണ്