Sistem Manajemen Lalu Lintas – Traffic jams and accidents are a big problem in Phnom Penh, the capital of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Inefficient signaling systems and lack of traffic discipline contributed to unfavorable traffic conditions. A comprehensive traffic management project was recently implemented. An area traffic control system that controls traffic signals in cities based on traffic conditions was introduced, and other traffic management improvement works such as road markings, traffic signs, and median dividers installed. This project has a positive impact on road users. Efficient operation and maintenance are key factors for the project to maintain its benefits
The Project for the Development of a Traffic Management System in Phnom Penh is a grant aid project by the Japanese government to the Capital City of Phnom Penh. This is a comprehensive traffic management project for the Capital City of Phnom Penh consisting of an area traffic control system and other traffic management works. The project includes the installation of state-of-the-art traffic signals at 109 intersections, 196 units of video vehicle detectors and 26 units of video traffic surveillance cameras in PhnomPenh. They are connected to the control center set up in the town hall building via their own communications network using fiber-optic cables. Renewal of pavement markings, provisions for median dividers, installation of traffic signs, and repair of damaged pavements are also included in the project.
Sistem Manajemen Lalu Lintas
The project was considered in 2012 as one of the short-term high priority plans of the Phnom Penh City Urban Transport Master Plan (PPUTMP) formulated under the Phnom Penh City Comprehensive Urban Transport Planning Project implemented by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Recognizing the importance of this project, the Cambodian government requested that the Japanese government implement it as a grant aid project in 2013, and the Japanese government accepted the request. The basic design of the project was completed in 2014, followed by the detailed design in 2015. Then, a contractor for the project was selected in late 2015, and the project started in March 2016. By the end of November 2018, the project was almost complete. The installation of signal controllers, vehicle detectors, video cameras and communication cables has been completed and all new signals operate in on-line mode under the control of the traffic control center. Adjustment of signal control parameters and training of escort staff who will operate the system are in progress. The project is scheduled for completion in December 2018.
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This article briefly describes the traffic and safety issues in Phnom Penh, and provides an outline and features of the ongoing traffic management project. Finally, the traffic results performed to verify the effectiveness of the new signal are presented.
According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Road Safety (OECD) annual report for 2017, there were 3.3 million registered vehicles in Cambodia in 2015. The increase in the number of registered vehicles is fast and the number increased by 14% in 2015 alone. In Phnom Penh, there were 0.44 million cars and 1.6 million motorcycles as of 31 December 2016 , indicating that 78% of vehicles were motorcycles. The high number of motorcycles is a factor to be considered in the development of traffic management and safety measures. In fact, 73% of all deaths are from motorcyclists.
The same OECD report shows that there were 1852 deaths in 2016, a decrease of 17% when compared to 2015. More than 80% of the deaths were due to vulnerable road users (motorcyclists, pedestrians and cyclists). Although the death toll is dropping, it is still high. The death rate per 100,000 population is 11.9, which is 3.4 times higher than Japan (4431 deaths or 3.50 per 100,000 population). If the difference in the number of registered vehicles between the two countries is considered, Cambodia’s death rate is much higher.
Cambodia is a young country. According to population pyramid data, 59% of the population is under 30 years old and 76% is under 40 in 2018. Although no data is available regarding the age of death, young people are considered a significant percentage. This is a huge loss not only for the families of the victims but also for the nation.
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Road traffic conditions and features in Phnom Penh are described below. Some of these are common in developing countries, while some are unique to Cambodia or Phnom Penh. The Project Final Report for a Comprehensive Urban Transport Plan in PhnomPenh Capital City also lists traffic management issues such as disregard of traffic rules and regulations by drivers, shortage of parking spaces, poor pedestrian street environment, etc.
Traffic in Phnom Penh is chaotic, with all kinds of vehicles from luxury SUVs to motorbikes and motorbike-pulled tuk-tuks plying the same streets. (See Fig. 1) Of these vehicle types, motorcycles are the majority and occupy 70–90% of the traffic volume. Different types of vehicles have different performance and maneuverability, resulting in inefficient traffic and unsafe traffic conditions. Tuk-tuk is a unique form of transportation. This is a motorcycle-driven passenger train, and a maximum of four passengers can ride on the train. Motorcycle engines are too small and powerless to pull a large enough load. Due to their poor performance, tuk-tuks mess up smooth traffic while occupying a much larger space than motorbikes. Currently, there are no controls imposed on tuk-tuks for the roads on which they can operate except for Norodom.
Road users – both drivers and pedestrians – often do not respect traffic laws and regulations. It is not uncommon to see a vehicle driver or motorcyclist ignoring a red light when there is no traffic at an intersection. Sometimes they operate on the wrong side of the road and run in reverse to take shortcuts. The rules of giving way are not followed, and yellow boxes drawn at some intersections indicating not at the intersection are not respected. Congestion at intersections quickly spreads to other locations as drivers continue. Even the way out of the intersection may not be clear, and no one wants to give way to someone else. The number of motorcyclists wearing helmets, which is mandatory, is lower than in other Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia and Vietnam, where 90% of motorcyclists wear helmets. This situation is further exacerbated by the driving behavior of motorcyclists. They are not separated from the four-wheeled vehicles and disrupt the orderly flow by weaving the vehicles.
One of the reasons for this behavior is that the driver’s license is not valid for motorcycles with engines under 125 cc. Anyone aged 16 or over can operate this type of motorcycle without a licence. Thus, many motorcyclists do not learn traffic rules or traffic safety. This rule also makes it difficult for traffic police to enforce traffic rules because engine size is hard to judge.
Pelatihan ”road Traffic Safety Management System” (sistem Manajemen Keselamatan Lalu Lintas Jalan)
In the downtown commercial area, there are not enough parking facilities. Most of the buildings are old and do not have parking facilities. There is no open parking in the central business district (CBD). Roadside parking is provided along several streets and is operated by a private company under a contract with City Hall. However, the number of parking facilities is much lower than demanded by parking. In fact, indiscriminate roadside parking is common and is a cause of severe congestion. Due to this shortage of parking spaces, sidewalks are often used as special parking lots for shops or customers visiting shops.