Sistem Manajemen Proyek Konstruksi – Information about Project Integration Management is one of the information that Project management experts must know, because it relates to the operational principles of the Project.
As noted in our previous discussion of Key Project Management Definitions and Principles. One of the principles is that the process of Task Execution should be directed to Total, and this is followed by coordinating and integrating the management of the sub-systems involved.
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Purpose of Integration and Coordination In this context, what is meant by integration and coordination is a process which aims to ensure that the components of project activities (sub-systems, sharing of personnel activities, etc.) can act as a unified whole or integrated. to achieve the objectives of the project system effectively and efficiently.
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In this connection, it is interesting to pay attention to the results of Peter Morris’s research which shows that integration and coordination functions are needed when the following conditions arise:
The situation described above can be found in almost all projects, especially in large projects. Integration and Coordination (I and K) processes during the project cycle can be divided into internal and external.
Internal processes I and K: Relating to the interaction of the components of the activity of the project itself, for example the results of the conceptual stage of the activities in the form of a feasibility study will be the main input for the next stage, namely Planning and Development Stage (PP)/Definition. These interactions are generally intensive and often require “trade-offs” between the components of the activities involved.
The process of external integration and coordination is characterized by the fact that the project involves many participants within (inter-sector) the relevant corporate organisation, and with external parties (subcontractors, partners, government and others) together in have certain relationships and connections which must be functioning as a unified whole.
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For the project to achieve its goals effectively and efficiently, precise and rigorous coordination and integration steps are required. If not, then it is feared that they will move on their own and this will have a negative impact on target achievement.
The Integration Process The integration process does not run on its own but must be planned, encouraged and carried out by the project manager. These are the actions required for the integration process to be effective:
It is necessary to create a favorable atmosphere so that the company in question is ready to accept and support the activities required by the project. Creating a supportive environment involves a series of actions, including:
Establishing Strict Planning and Control One effective way of forming integration between different components of project activities is to ensure that planning and control are established in the form of cycles of planning => action (implementation of planning) => control => correction.
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This happens because good management of project activity components (which are relatively independent) and project activities carried out by various participants or actors requires sequential planning and management aspects. With the above planning-implementation-control-correction process that spans the project as a whole, it is expected that components of activities that appear fragmentary can become an integrated whole.
Managing Conflict Appropriately Conflict will always occur when two individuals or groups work together. Conflict that is not excessive and is properly managed will have a positive effect; conversely, excessive and poorly managed conflict can be detrimental to project implementation. Managing conflict in a project means managing individuals or groups who have to work together in a relatively short time, with the same and different goals. Under such circumstances, the project manager is expected to have a keen expectation and master the concept of dealing with it.
A frequent cause of conflict is the prioritization of resource allocation (experts, equipment, money, etc.), especially for companies handling multiple projects. In this case, company leaders, for example the Head of the Project Division, need to involve the project managers and their staff in the preparation of the resource allocation plan that is being implemented and will be implemented.
Maintain Communication with Stakeholders One important way to integrate is to maintain communication with project stakeholders, especially those who deal directly with the project on a daily basis such as project team owners, contractors, subcontractors, partners, manufacturers, and others.
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In general, the project leader must devote most of his time to dealing with communication, such as holding project executive meetings, drawing up and reviewing reports, procedures and policies, distributing instructions from senior officials and the opinions of other stakeholders, and r above is a prerequisite. for forming good integration, internal or external.
Furthermore, the existence of open communication will be able to reduce the incidence of things that have a negative impact on integral efforts such as differences in perceptions, hostility between actors or organizations and resistance to change.
Specialization and Integration From another point of view, Lawrence and Lorch argued that with the progress of science and technology and the increasing complexity of the system being managed, there is a need for deeper specialisation. Naturally the need arises for coordination and integration so that the experts are not separated and immersed in the “concern” in their respective fields.
When managing a project effectively, it is necessary to create a balance between these two needs. Because functional areas (project support) are considered to focus on specialization, the project manager’s job is to coordinate and integrate in order to achieve the desired balance.
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Interface Management In an effort to further understand the integration function in project management, RD Achibald (1979) attempts to relate it to what is known as interface management which is defined as follows:
“Interface management is the planning and management of interactions between different elements of activities and organizations of participants or stakeholders at specific times and areas”.
It was further explained that interface management includes identifying, documenting, scheduling, communicating and managing the interface elements of project participants’ activities and organizations. Therefore, effective interface management seems to be an important requirement for creating the integration process.
Examples of Management Interfaces A clear example of interface management is what happens in the zones where interaction takes place between the project and the participating organizations, called the interphase area (organizational interface).
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Types of Interface As well as being divided into static and dynamic, interfaces can also be classified into personnel, organization and system.
Personnel Interface In the project there are individuals or groups who have to work together. This always raises the potential for problems to arise due to interests that at the same time contain elements of similarities and differences.
Organizational Interface Each project actor’s organizational unit, apart from having common goals, also has its own goals. For example, apart from wanting to make the project successful, the contractor also wants to make a profit. Managing this type of interface is quite difficult, because the main organizations have generally drawn up definite goals and kept to these goals. An example of an organizational interface can be seen in Fig
System Interface A system interface is an interface related to non-human systems, such as hardware, facilities, product settings and others that are worked on in a project.
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It can include physical interfaces contained in interconnected components (interconnected parts). Interface with Stakeholders In general, what is meant by project stakeholders are individuals, groups or organizations who:
The project management team has to identify stakeholders to find out what they expect, although this is not easy to do due to the large number of stakeholders and diverse interests. Some of the important stakeholders are as follows:
In this discussion, the term project participant is used, which includes several members of stakeholders who are actively involved directly in handling the implementation of the project, such as the project manager, the core team of the project owner, contractors, relevant functional areas, and consultants. Interface management is very important, especially in order to integrate project activities carried out by the organizational parts of the participants.
Interface with the Project Owner For executors (participants) such as contracting companies, the interface with the owner must be based on the premise that every effort should be made to fulfill the wishes of the customer (customer). In this context the owner is the customer. The owner has a major influence and role in the success of the project management process.
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Often the co-operative support of the owner depends on the intensity of the role and participation in the planning and implementation stages. During this period, the executor had to hold many consultations with the owner and discuss and discuss various issues related to the implementation program. Among the most important are the following:
Their participation and approval on the issues mentioned above will encourage the growth of support and commitment from the owner which in turn facilitates the process of managing the implementation of the project.
Interface with Various Areas and Internal Leaders of the Company The interface between the project manager and the various areas and internal leadership of the company can be grouped as follows:
Meanwhile, the project manager is required to report on the progress of the project and the constraints it faces Interface with various functional areas is one of the most difficult tasks because the project manager does not have governance authority, while many factors for the success of the project depend on the work assigned to these areas On the other hand, functional areas often have reasonable bases such as the following:
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To deal with the above situation, the project manager should have a reserve fund to overcome this uncertainty (for example, using external consultants) and not always expect to have the best experts. In general the interface between the project leader and members or groups within the core team is not too difficult because they are transferred (transmitted) to the composition of the project leader’s staff.
Therefore, the project manager has a line of authority over them even though the time period is limited as long as the project still needs them. The factor that the project manager needs to consider in this last case is to try to get core staff members who are really qualified and ready to use them, because there is no more time to carry out training.
Interface with Government and Communities It was mentioned that integration and coordination with external (external) parties includes those involved with government and community groups interested in the project. As in the case of other stakeholders, attention needs to be paid to the management of the interface with these parties, namely identifying and analyzing the roles and aspects that can be influenced. The intensity of interfaces of this class generally depends on a number of factors such as the size of the project, community behavior, government regulations, etc.
Management Level of the Operating Organization It will be easier to formulate the duties and responsibilities of the project leader and the core project team in relation to interface management if it is realized that management levels are universal in operating organizations (for example, contractors), each of these. which has its own function.